First part :
PRELIMINARY STUDIES 1990-97
DOCTORAL STUDIES 1998-2002
POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES 2003-2017
FINALIZATION STUDIES 2018-2019
PUBLICATION & ANIMATED INFOGRAPHIC MODELING 2019 - in progress
The pyramid of Cheops
Since the time they were erected, nearly 5000 years ago, the way of construction of Egyptian Pyramids still remains today a real enigma that contemporary technologies are unable to solve. The theories that have been put forward until today by various authors are opposing to each others and could not satisfy entirely the practitioner of the Art of building. None of them has ever offered a truly scientific, technical and operative approach, not more that any element of convincing evidence.
In this article, we investigate the case of the Great Pyramids of the IVth dynasty, mainly the three Pyramids of Giza. We focus in particular on the Cheops'one, the most enigmatic because of its internal design, but actually and paradoxically the most revealing of the Pyramids' constructive system we present
Following the author and in opposition with many previous interpretations, the pyramid stones do not come from “very far away in Arabia”, and the building process was not achieved with the help of “lands gathering needed to haul the blocks”, but by directly borrowing the plateau of Giza's surrounding materials and using a method of construction we define as “ pyramidal growth”.
In the text, we expose a way of building, based on the practical necessities such as : searching the necessary materials which defines rational choice for the settlement, using a constructive method which implies a labour organisation and rules for material supplies. These questions have their answers within the different disciplines contributing to the Art of building.
We define precisely a set of rules for the pyramidal constructive method. The first principle : “to make use of the surrounding stone and to stack it up into the centre” ; the operative algorithm: “to lay a block on two others in a corbelled way and this, in an additive and recurrent manner”; the constructive system :“block by block, side by side, by successive covers” defining in this way the “pyramidal growth”. As a consequence, this “pyramidal growth” is a necessary function of available techniques and of the dimensional characteristics of the building materials. Moreover, the building blocks and the general display of the exploitation sites are a direct consequences of the natural geological features and of the failure patterns commanded by tectonics.
Interestingly, this constructive system can be modelled in order to investigate its consequences. We find that it leads necessarily to “pyramid-shaped” constructions without sophisticated conceptual plans. The shape of the pyramids (its angle) is a direct function of the local display algorithm. Moreover, the corollary of the method leads to a natural interpretation of the devices found inside the Pyramid of Cheops. We show that the internal gallery system can be created by anticipation of the construction method of one face of the pyramid, with an inclination angle matching the real one. Also the Great Gallery can be interpreted in a purely utilitarian way, as an amazing oblique lift, allowing to haul up the 52 monoliths made of granite of the King's room, until 65 metres height.
This article, several pieces of evidence are supplied by the author. The method allows to search for a series of conclusive proofs which are to be checked “in situ” : on the plateau (analysis of stones of the deposit's natural breaking), on the pyramid (observation of the top and the edges' disposition), and inside the pyramid (examination of the inside device). On a historical point of view, we find, surprisingly, that the description provided by Herodotus , nowadays ruled out because impenetrable, turned out to be technical, precise and accurate. It is corroborated by modelling, experimentation and observation, highlighting the observations of R. Lepsius and the intuitions of A. Choisy.
Furthermore, this way of reasoning allows to situate the Great sleek Pyramids inside a “technical continuum”, since the first agricultural removing stones of the Neolithic period, which is based on an universal method of construction known as “accredition-raising” to the actual constructions still nowadays made is rural environment (shepherd's shelter, field stoning etc. ) . This method generates, puts in order and formalises the whole tumulus-shaped edifices, including pyramids with degrees, within the space and time.
This approach is innovative and predicative, consisting essentially in displaying practical questions and answers brought by the different scientific, technical and operative disciplines contributing to the “Art of building”.
It proposed paths of investigations which demand to be completed and checked by the international community.
This work is also a rational contribution to the History of Techniques, to Egyptology and to Culture in general. It might revive the debate, or else close it, on the way of building Pyramids and allows a totally new approach to the first chapters of the history of the Art of building.